Computer Graphics Forum, 2014 and Eurographics 2015

Inverse Procedural Modeling of Trees

Ondrej Stava1       Sören Pirk2       Julian Kratt2             Baoquan Chen3
Radomír Měch1       Oliver Deussen2       Bedrich Benes4

1Adobe Systems Incorporated, USA
2University of Konstanz, Germany
3Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, China
4Purdue University, USA


Procedural tree models have been popular in computer graphics for their ability to generate a variety of output trees from a set of input parameters and to simulate plant interaction with the environment for a realistic placement of trees in virtual scenes. However, defining such models and their parameters is a difficult task. We propose an inverse modeling approach for stochastic trees that takes polygonal tree models as input and estimates the parameters of a procedural model so that it produces trees similar to the input. Our framework is based on a novel parametric model for tree generation and uses Monte Carlo Markov Chains to find the optimal set of parameters. We demonstrate our approach on a variety of input models obtained from different sources, such as interactive modeling systems, reconstructed scans of real trees, and developmental models.





@article {CGF:CGF12282,
author   = {Stava, O. and Pirk, S. and Kratt, J. and Chen, B. and Mech, R. 
            and Deussen, O. and Benes, B.},
title    = {Inverse Procedural Modelling of Trees},
journal  = {Computer Graphics Forum},
issn     = {1467-8659},
url      = {},
doi      = {10.1111/cgf.12282},
pages    = {n/a--n/a},
year     = {2014},
keywords = {mesh generation, biological modeling, natural phenomena, I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: 
            Computational Geometry and Object Modelling; I.3.6 [Computer Graphics]: Methodology 
            and Techniques Interaction Techniques I.6.8 [Simulation and Modelling]: Types 
            of Simulation Visual},